INDECS - Paper abstract


K. Martinás1 and A. Grandpierre2

1Department of Atomic Physics, Eötvös Loránd University
  Budapest, Hungary
2Konkoly Observatory of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
  Budapest, Hungary

Received: 2 January, 2007. Accepted: 1 July, 2007.


One of the most fundamental laws of Nature is formulated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. At present, in its usual formulation the central concept is entropy characterized in terms of equilibrium state variables. We point out that because thermodynamic changes arise when systems are out of equilibrium and because entropy is not a natural state variable characterizing non-equilibrium states, a new formulation of the Second Law is required. In this paper, we introduce a new, more general, but still entropic measure that is suitable in non-equilibrium conditions as well. This new entropic measure has given a name extropy. The introduction of extropy allows us to formulate the Second Law in a more suitable and precise form, and it resolves some conceptual difficulties related to the interpretation of entropy. We point out that extropy has a fundamental significance in physics, in biology, and in our scientific worldview.


entropy, thermodynamics, extropy, irreversibility


JEL:C69, 01.55.+b

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